Singular nouns represent one. Plural nouns represent two or more. The plural form of most nouns can be created by adding -s or -es to the end of the word. There are other plural nouns whose ending changes. In many cases there’s a rule that can be followed. As grammar rules tend to go, there are exceptions, which are noted.

Regular Plural Nouns (based on word endings)

add -s

 

add -es

– (most) nouns

 

-ch/-tch

Book/Books

 

Church/Churches

Chair/Chairs

 

Match/Matches

Desk/Desks

 

Watch/Watches

Report/Reports

 

 *Stomach/Stomachs

Monarch/Monarchs

(ch ending with /k/ sound)

– vowel + y

 

-sh

Day/Days

 

Wish/Wishes

Key/Keys

 

Lash/Lashes

-e

 

-x

Shoe/Shoes

 

Fox/Foxes

Table/Tables

 

Box/Boxes

vowel + o

 

consonant + o

Radio/Radios

 

Potato/Potatoes

Video/Videos

 

Tomato/Tomatoes

Patio/Patios

 

Tornado/Tornadoes

Ratio/Ratios

 

*Piano/Pianos, Photo/Photos

double consonants

 

-z/-zz

Cliffs

 

Buzzes

Malls

 

Waltzes

 

 

-s/-ss

 

 

Kisses

 

 

Buses

 

add -ies

 

change to -ves

consonant + y

(y becomes i)

 

-f/-fe

Cherry/Cherries

 

Wolf/Wolves

Berry/Berries

 

Half/Halves

Fly/flies

 

Knife/Knives

 

 

*Roof/Roofs, Chief/Chiefs, Belief/Beliefs

 

change to -i

 

change to -es 

 

change to -a

-us

 

-is

 

-on

Focus/Foci

 

 Thesis/Theses

 

Phenomenon/Phenomena

Cactus/Cacti

 

 Hypothesis/Hypotheses

 

Criterion/Criteria

Fungus/Fungi

 

 Analysis/Analyses

 

Plethron/Plethora

 

 

 

 

-um

 

 

 

 

Bacterium/Bacteria

 

 

 

 

Equilibrium/Equilibria

 

 

 

 

Aquarium/Aquaria

*exceptions

 

Irregular Plural Nouns

Irregular plural nouns are irregular because in some cases, the spelling changes to reflect the plural form and in other cases, the word reflects both the singular and plural form with no spelling changes.

 

Singular

Plural

Singular and Plural

Child

Children

 

Sheep

Ox

Oxen

 

Deer

Woman

Women

 

Fish

Man

Men

 

Salmon

Foot

Feet

 

Species

Mouse

Mice

 

Aircraft

Goose

Geese

 

Glasses

Tooth

Teeth

 

Pants

Die

Dice

 

Jeans

Person

People

 

News

2 thoughts on “Plural Nouns: Regular & Irregular

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